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In this case, the Twitter profiles of the authors are available, but these consist of freeform text rather than fixed information fields.
Their features were hash tags, token unigrams and psychometric measurements provided by the Linguistic Inquiry of Word Count software (LIWC; (Pennebaker et al. Although LIWC appears a very interesting addition, it hardly adds anything to the classification.Gender recognition has also already been applied to Tweets. (2010) examined various traits of authors from India tweeting in English, combining character N-grams and sociolinguistic features like manner of laughing, honorifics, and smiley use.With lexical N-grams, they reached an accuracy of 67.7%, which the combination with the sociolinguistic features increased to 72.33%. (2011) attempted to recognize gender in tweets from a whole set of languages, using word and character N-grams as features for machine learning with Support Vector Machines (SVM), Naive Bayes and Balanced Winnow2.With only token unigrams, the recognition accuracy was 80.5%, while using all features together increased this only slightly to 80.6%. (2014) examined about 9 million tweets by 14,000 Twitter users tweeting in American English.They used lexical features, and present a very good breakdown of various word types.For our experiment, we selected 600 authors for whom we were able to determine with a high degree of certainty a) that they were human individuals and b) what gender they were.
We then experimented with several author profiling techniques, namely Support Vector Regression (as provided by LIBSVM; (Chang and Lin 2011)), Linguistic Profiling (LP; (van Halteren 2004)), and Ti MBL (Daelemans et al.
For all techniques and features, we ran the same 5-fold cross-validation experiments in order to determine how well they could be used to distinguish between male and female authors of tweets.
In the following sections, we first present some previous work on gender recognition (Section 2). Currently the field is getting an impulse for further development now that vast data sets of user generated data is becoming available. (2012) show that authorship recognition is also possible (to some degree) if the number of candidate authors is as high as 100,000 (as compared to the usually less than ten in traditional studies).
In this paper we restrict ourselves to gender recognition, and it is also this aspect we will discuss further in this section.
A group which is very active in studying gender recognition (among other traits) on the basis of text is that around Moshe Koppel. 2002) they report gender recognition on formal written texts taken from the British National Corpus (and also give a good overview of previous work), reaching about 80% correct attributions using function words and parts of speech.
2004), with and without preprocessing the input vectors with Principal Component Analysis (PCA; (Pearson 1901); (Hotelling 1933)).