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The business cycle dating committee defines a recession as

Development of knowledge and skill in job-seeking and job-retaining skills and, for students completing vocational-technical programs, the skills to succeed in the occupation for which they are prepared. Study of concepts and skills which affect personal, family and community health and safety, nutrition, physical fitness, movement concepts and strategies, safety in physical activity settings, and leadership and cooperation in physical activities. Understanding the role of consumers as a foundation for managing available resources to provide for personal and family needs and to provide basic knowledge of child health and child care skills. • Describe potential impact of genome research on the biochemistry and physiology of life.

(4) Technical guidance in developing local assessments that meet the requirements of § 4.24(c)(1)(iii)(B) (relating to high school graduation requirements), upon request. (d) The academic standards describe the knowledge and skills that students will be expected to demonstrate before graduating from a public school. (2) Content, including materials and activities, and estimated instructional time to be devoted to achieving the academic standards. F Demonstrate a grade-appropriate command of the conventions of standard English grammar, usage, capitalization, punctuation, and spelling. • Describe and distinguish among cell cycles, reproductive cycles and life cycles. (g) In planning any revision of the academic standards in subsection (a) content areas, the Secretary will consult with educators, business and community leaders and parents. Code § 4.11 (relating to purpose of public education); 22 Pa. Code § 4.31 (relating to vocational-technical education); 22 Pa. • Describe the role of DNA in protein synthesis as it relates to gene expression. Children with disabilities may attain the academic standards by completion of their individualized education programs under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act and this part. • Explain different types of inheritance (e.g., multiple allele, sex-influenced traits). These components incorporate the disciplines of resource management, agricultural diversity, government and the impact of human actions on natural systems. Study of the record of human experience including important events; interactions of culture, race and ideas; the nature of prejudice; change and continuity in political systems; effects of technology; importance of global-international perspectives; and the integration of geography, economics and civics studies on major developments in the history of the Commonwealth, the United States and the world. Study of relationships among people, places and environments, of geographic tools and methods, characteristics of place, concept of region and physical processes. Study of United States constitutional democracy, its values and principles, study of the Constitution of the Commonwealth and government including the study of principles, operations and documents of government, the rights and responsibilities of citizenship, how governments work and international relations. Study of how individuals and societies choose to use resources to produce, distribute and consume goods and services. • Evaluate metabolic activities using experimental knowledge of enzymes. The Pennsylvania Core Standards for Reading in Science and Technology and the Pennsylvania Core Standards for Writing in Science and Technology will be an appendix to the Commonwealth’s academic standards for Science and Technology upon publication in the Pennsylvania Bulletin. Understanding the components of ecological systems and their interrelationships with social systems and technologies. • Identify and describe factors affecting metabolic function (e.g., temperature, acidity, hormones). Code § 16.4 (relating to gifted education plans); 22 Pa. • Use precise language, domain-specific vocabulary, and techniques such as metaphor, simile, and analogy to manage the complexity of the topic. • Describe and differentiate between the roles of natural selection and genetic drift.

The provisions of this § 4.13 amended December 15, 2006, effective December 16, 2006, 36 Pa. 7542; amended February 15, 2008, effective February 16, 2008, 38 Pa. 872; amended March 7, 2008, effective February 16, 2008; amended February 28, 2014, effective March 1, 2014, 44 Pa. Code § 14.104 (relating to special education plans); 22 Pa. E • Write with an awareness of the stylistic aspects of composition. • Apply the concept of natural selection as a central concept in illustrating evolution theory.

Plans for assessment developed by school entities must take into account that academic standards in subsections (a) and (c) may be attained by students in various ways and shall be assessed in various ways. • Explain the relationship among DNA, genes and chromosomes.

Elementary education: primary and intermediate levels. (f) School entities shall assess the attainment of academic standards developed under subsections (a) and (c) and any other academic standards that they develop under § 4.52(c) for purposes of high school graduation and strategies for assisting students to attain them. • Compare random and selective breeding practices and their results (e.g., antibiotic resistant bacteria).

Upon publication in the Pennsylvania Bulletin, following implementation of a transition plan to be developed by the Department in collaboration with education stakeholders, academic standards will be based on the Pennsylvania Core Standards for Mathematics. Know that every organism has a set of genetic instructions that determines its inherited traits.

Students will learn to model real-world situations by creating appropriate representations of numerical quantities and plan and implement problem-solving strategies to answer the question in the context of the situation. • Identify physical characteristics that appear in both parents and offspring and differ between families, strains or species.

Attaining the academic standards in this section requires students to demonstrate the acquisition and application of knowledge. • Identify basic patterns of inheritance (e.g., dominance, recessive, codominance). • Distinguish how different living things reproduce (e.g., vegetative budding, sexual). • Describe how selective breeding, natural selection and genetic technologies can change genetic makeup of organisms.